Identity verification is among the primary contributors to mobile app security. Considering that face data is unique for each person, it has been utilized to develop a major branch of identity verification: face recognition.
Face recognition has been widely applied in services we use every day, such as unlocking a mobile device, face-scan payment, access control, and more. Undoubtedly, face recognition delivers a streamlined verification process for the mentioned services. However, that is not to say that this kind of security is completely safe and secure. Face recognition can only detect faces, and is unable to tell whether they belong to a real person, making face recognition vulnerable to presentation attacks (PAs), including the print attack, replay attack, and mask attack.