As most of you already know, ETL stands for Extract-Transform-Load and is the process of moving data from one source system to another. First, we will clarify why we need to transfer data from one point to another; second, we will look at traditional approaches; finally, we will describe how one can build a real-time streaming ETL process using Apache Kafka, Kafka Connect, Debezium, and ksqlDB.

When we build our business applications, we design the data model considering the functional requirements of our application. We do not take account of any kind of operational or analytical reporting requirements. A data model for reporting requirements is to be denormalized, whereas the data model for operations of an application is to be mostly normalized. So, for reporting or any kind of analytical purposes, we are required to convert our data model into denormalized form. 

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